San Lorenzo 1680
San Antonio de Senecú 1680
Nuestra Señora de la Limpia Concepción del Socorro, 1680
Corpus Christi de la Isleta, 1680
San Jose y San Miguel Aguayo, 1720
San Bernardo, 1702
Mission San Juan Bautista, 1700
San Antonio de Valero, 1718
San Miguel de Linares de los Adeas, 1716
Dolores de los Ais, 1716
Presidio Nuestra Señora del Pilar de los Adaes, 1721-1773
Presidio de Paso del Norte, 1682-1773
San Antonio de Bexar, 1718-1821
Presidio San Juan Bautista de Rio Grande (1701-1827)
Established in April 1757, along with the Presidio San Luis de las Amarillas, in what is now Menard County. Located along the San Saba River, the mission was intended to convert members of the Lipan Apache tribe. Although no Apache ever resided at the mission, its existence convinced the Comanche that the Spanish had allied with the Comanche's mortal enemy. In 1758 the mission was destroyed by 2,000 warriors from the Comanche, Tonkawa, Yojuane, Bidai and Hasinai tribes. It was the only mission in Texas to be completely destroyed by Native Americans. The Indians did not attack the nearby presidio.
After the destruction of Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission in 1758, the entreaties of Lipan Apache chieftains persuaded Spanish officials to found a settlement on the upper Nueces River. The mission came under attack by 300 Comanches and their allies in October 1766, followed by a second assault in the following month, but both were repulsed. The Spanish abandoned the mission soon after.
Founded on the west bank of the east branch of the Nueces at the site of present Montell in northwestern Uvalde County. Mission Candelaria attracted 400 Apaches within a week of its founding, but the Indians demonstrated no real interest in conversion. The attraction waned, and in the fifth year the mission was completely devoid of neophytes and soon abandoned.
An unofficial, short-lived mission located at the site of present-day New Braunfels. The site was finally abandoned in March 1758, after the destruction of Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission, for fear that the aroused hostility of the Comanches and their Norteño allies would be directed against the unprotected mission.
By July 1730, several of the East Texas missions were relocated at the Colorado River (possibly near the site of present Austin) in hopes of attracting Central Texas Indians. Conditions proved to be unfavorable at the Colorado, and the missions were finally moved to the San Antonio area a few months later. On March 5, 1731, officials refounded Concepción on the east bank of the San Antonio River about halfway between the already existing missions of San Antonio de Valero to the north and San José to the south. The mission was renamed Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de Acuña.
The mission was originally named Mission San José de los Nazonis. San Juan Capistrano Mission was renamed on March 5, 1731, when it was relocated twelve miles from the Alamo. It did not make as much progress as did the other San Antonio missions because of its exposure to frequent Indian attacks and the fact that lands allotted to the mission were not sufficient for its horses and cattle and the raising of the required crops.
Founded originally in 1690 as San Francisco de los Tejas before failing, Spanish missionaries re-established it in 1716 as Nuestro Padre San Francisco de los Tejas before being abandoned in 1719 because of conflict between Spain and France. The mission was tried once more on August 5, 1721 as San Francisco de los Neches before being temporarily relocated along the Colorado River in July 1730. The mission relocated to its current location in the San Antonio River area in March, 1731 and was renamed San Francisco De la Espada. The Mission encountered great difficulties in presiding over the Indian population and experienced common rebellious activity.
Also known as Aranama Mission or Mission La Bahia, the mission had been located located on Matagorda Bay in 1722, then near present-day Victoria in 1726. Moved to Goliad in 1749, it, together with its nearby military fortress Presidio La Bahia, served to uphold Spanish territorial claims in the New World against encroachment from France.
Established in November 1754 in an effort to provide an alternative for Indian tribes who could not assimilate at other missions. The ranching operation was successful and the mission herd grew to some 30,000 head in 1780. Indian problems caused the mission to be abandoned in 1781 but it was reopened in 1789.
First established in 1793 near the present day town of Long Mott in Calhoun County. The mission did not thrive in that location and was moved in 1794 to Mosquitos Creek where it also did not thrive. The final move to a ocation along the Mission River took place in January 1795.
Three missions along the San Gabriel (known at the time as the San Xavier) River, served the Indians of Central Texas from approximately 1746 to 1755. The missions included San Francisco Xavier de Horcasitas, San Ildefonso, and Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria. The San Xavier missions struggled on despite a prolonged drought and epidemic before moving tto the San Marcos River in August 1755. Soon, the San Xavier neophytes were transferred to San Antonio missions, and mission property and the presidio were reassigned to Santa Cruz de San Sabá Mission.
Established in 1749, it was the second of three San Xavier missions. Plagued by bad luck and rebellious Indians, missionaries abandoned the site in 1754.
The third of three San Xavier missions. There was constant squabbling between the San Xavier missions and the military force sent to protect them and the head of Mission Candelaria was assassinated before the facility was abandoned in 1755.
Established in 1756 on the east bank of the Trinity River near the site of present-day Wallisville in northern Chambers County, misfortune plagued the enterprise, known collectively as El Orcoquisac, almost from the beginning. The lack of food and supplies, combined with the insects, low terrain, and lack of cooperation with soldiers and area Indians, disrupted missionary efforts and it was abandoned in 1771.
The presidio was built in 1760 between San Francisco de los Julimes and Nuestra Señora de Guadalupeqv pueblo but was abandoned in the fall of 1766 and moved to Julimes on the Río Conchos. In 1772 the king ordered the reestablishment of the presidio at La Junta, and by 1773 the fort was back at its original site. The name was shortened to Presidio del Norte.
Better known as Presidio of San Sabá, it was founded to protect the Mission Santa Cruz de San Sabá, established at the same time. On March 16, 1758, a band of 2000 Comanche and Wichita Indians, bitter enemies of the Lipan Apache, attacked Mission Santa Cruz de San Sabá. The presidio sent a small force to aid the mission, but the soldiers were driven back. More than a year later, a force of 600 men from the presidio set out to find and punish the Indians responsible for the attack on the mission but was repulsed with heavy losses and the presidio commander was relieved of command. The post was abandoned in 1768, reoccupied briefly in 1770, then permanently abandoned.
An eighteenth-century Spanish fort that existed from 1734 to 1737 and again from 1771 to 1782. It was built to protect the many Spanish ranchos that belonged to missions and private individuals between Bexar and La Bahía.
A fort constructed by the Spanish Army that became the nucleus of the modern-day city of Goliad, Texas, United States. Originally founded in 1721 on the ruins of the failed French Fort Saint Louis, the presidio was moved to a location on the Guadalupe River in 1726. In 1747, the presidio and its mission were moved to their current location on the San Antonio River.
A Spanish military outpost founded on March 30, 1751, on the south bank of the San Gabriel River to protect and aid the San Xavier missions.
In May 1754, trader Joseph Blancpain and several other Frenchmen set up a permanent trading post near the east bank of the Trinity River, about 8 kilometers upstream from Trinity Bay. Spanish authorities reacted by sending troops to oust the intruders and establish a presence in the region. In 1766, a hurricane severely damaged the presidio and completely destroyed the mission but both were rebuilt, only to be abandoned just a few years later.
Built on the Rio Grande between Mariscal and Boquillas Canyons in what is today the state of Coahuila. Abandoned in 1784.
Located about forty miles south of present-day Van Horn, Texas. Originally located at Pilares on the Río Grande, it was relocated in 1782
Spanish Presidios present in Texas 1730-1820
Spanish Missions present in Texas 1730-1820