After the abdication of Augustín Iturbide, the ruling triumvirate—The Supreme Executive Power—tried to get some cooperation among the newly liberated states of Mexico to convene a new congress. After some wrangling, elections held in August and September 1823 succeeded in gathering together a legislative body. This new government, though, represented the states more than a central authority. As a result, a split emerged over where the true center of political gravity should lay. Conservatives favored a centralized authority and enjoyed the backing of the army and the church. Liberals favored a federalist system and were, for the time being, in the majority.
A committee formed to write a national constitution in November 1823, but political and regional feuding and the emerging federalist and centralist factions delayed its final ratification until October 4, 1824.
The resulting document was heavily influenced by the US Constitution of 1787 and the Spanish Constitution of 1812 and called for the following:
Mexico divided into 19 States and 4 Territories
Each State had to include:
Tribunal of Justice
Legislative bodies of the states would elect Federal President for four-year term, second place winner got Vice President.
The Federal Government included:
Bi-cameral legislature (Chamber of Deputies and Senate)
Deputies (two-year terms) apportion by population
Senators (four year terms) chosen by state legislatures
State Church supported by taxes
Military and Church privileges maintained (Fueros)
The Constitution of 1824 did not include Trial by Jury, a surprise for many Americans who soon came to live under its authority.